Auschwitz is best known as a place of death—a hellish extermination camp, the largest of its kind, where at least 1. During her two-year internment at Auschwitz , the Polish midwife delivered 3, babies at the camp in unthinkable conditions. Though her story is little known outside of Poland, it is testament to the resistance of a small group of women determined to help their fellow prisoners. Adolf Hitler visiting troops near Lodz, In , everything changed when the Nazis marched into Poland.
Regardless of this, I still thoroughly enjoyed learning about the traveling circus during Book pregnant jewish girl nazi war. However, while working together the two form a bond but with the war raging on, their friendship will be put to the test. Their dual narratives allow the secrets that they both hold to slowly unravel, but Jenoff is careful to withhold this until the final moments of the novel. Noa finds refuge with a German circus, but she must learn the flying trapeze act Uncensored limp bizkit break she can blend girrl undetected, spurning the resentment of the lead Book pregnant jewish girl nazi, Astrid. He had a heart of gold. This comment has been deleted. Additionally, the emphasis at that point was on how women had kept their families together and functioning after their husbands and fathers had lost their jobs, been arrested, sent to concentration camps, or killed. Iewish story was well on its way to preggnant rated at least four out of five stars, but the ending really fell flat for me. I loved this book and predict that it will be one of the major jazi of the winter. Cover of Dr.
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To this day the majority have never been able to discover the terrible truth about their conception and birth. In addition, Fela worked several months in a German ammunition factory, which entailed very long and strenuous hours of work. At first, Adolf Book pregnant jewish girl nazi claimed that all the Nazi children groups were voluntary organizations. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? All three verses. Trude Mohr was appointed the first Reichsreferentin in June Article bookmarked Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile Don't show me this message again. Most of the ground crews were killed or wounded. He was a sweet Mikazuki waltz doujinshi download, although he hurt me a little, and I think he was actually a little stupid, but he had smashing looks. Like so many Lebensborn babies, he almost certainly found himself ostracized in post-war Germany, his birth and upbringing a stigma that could never be completely expunged. Many were adopted after the war, by which time the records of their birth had been destroyed. She has a duty to her people to keep fit and healthy!
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- Simon came to me by way of Joseph Berger, the recently retired New York Times columnist and author, who is a childhood friend of his.
- It was set up under the direction of Hitler Youth leader, Baldur von Schirach.
- Some German women successfully gave birth and had their babies taken away for adoption.
- Now 72 years old, Puc, whose family was Catholic, was born in on a brick tunnel furnace that ran through the middle of a barracks in Auschwitz II-Birkenau, the labor and extermination camp built next to Auschwitz after the flood of prisoners flowing in from across Europe and the Soviet Union overwhelmed the original camp.
- Jewish women in the Holocaust refers to women who were Jewish and imprisoned in Europe in Nazi concentration camps or in hiding to prevent capture by the Nazis during the Holocaust between and
- It was the only legal female youth organization in Nazi Germany.
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Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Sixteen-year-old Noa has been cast out in disgrace after becoming pregnant by a Nazi soldier and being forced to give up her baby. She lives above a small rail station, which she cleans in order to earn her keep. When Noa discovers a boxcar containing dozens of Jewish infants bound for a concentration camp, she is reminded of the child that was taken from her.
And in a moment that will change the course of her life, she snatches one of the babies and flees into the snowy night. Noa finds refuge with a German circus, but she must learn the flying trapeze act so she can blend in undetected, spurning the resentment of the lead aerialist, Astrid. At first rivals, Noa and Astrid soon forge a powerful bond. But as the facade that protects them proves increasingly tenuous, Noa and Astrid must decide whether their friendship is enough to save one another - or if the secrets that burn between them will destroy everything.
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To ask other readers questions about The Orphan's Tale , please sign up. Is this book a good read? Dana Crano O. I'm only on page 92 and it's heart wrenching and I can't tear my eyes away. Is this a work of fiction or non-fiction? Jill It is fiction, loosely based on factual accounts of different people, combined to make this fictional, very well written book. See all 17 questions about The Orphan's Tale…. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews.
Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Feb 14, Angela M rated it liked it Shelves: netgalley-reviews. There are notable as well as unsung heroes who protected some Jews from the Holocaust. This is an admirable attempt to capture a story that I knew nothing about - the German circus and how some Jews were hidden as circus performers.
I found it interesting because I didn't know about it and uplifting to know there were good people willing to take risks to save their fellow man. Noa, a 16 year old Dutch girl, makes a mi There are notable as well as unsung heroes who protected some Jews from the Holocaust.
Noa, a 16 year old Dutch girl, makes a mistake, sleeps with a German soldier and loses her family, her baby and the life she knew. An act of courage saving a Jewish baby from a carload of babies on a train, will endear her to you. Astrid, a German Jew from a circus family, falls in love and marries a German soldier, and the outcome is not a good one when she is forced to return home to find her family gone.
Enter the German circus owner Herr Neuhoff who will do what he can to save these Astrid, Noa and the baby that she rescued. I'm not sure why but I had a hard time feeling any connection to the characters and even their connections, relationships and friendships didn't grab me. While it is an important story, it just didn't come together for me with a lot of focus on the romantic relationships.
There are so many good reviews for this, so maybe I missed something but stacked up against the Holocaust literature that I have read, this one garners 3 stars for the effort to tell a story based on facts that inspired the author.
View all comments. I enjoyed this WWII story told through the unique perspective of the traveling circus. It always makes me question myself — would I have been that brave during that time?
I can only hope I would have had even a small amount of the bravery of these unsung heroes. I was shocked to learn that the circus sheltered Jews during the Holocaust - circus owners and performers took major risks hiding Jews within their acts and in the backstage staff, knowing they could be searched and found out at any random checkpoint along their travels.
I had a hard time fully connecting with the characters after that point. It seemed too fast and convenient. Regardless of this, I still thoroughly enjoyed learning about the traveling circus during the war. It is clear that the author, Pam Jenoff, has done an incredible amount of research to create this novel - she weaves fact into this fictional story so seamlessly. View all 44 comments. At the age of 16, Noa is forced to leave the home of her parents, her family, when they notice her belly swelling with child.
Unmarried, impregnated by a German soldier, she struggles to find a way to survive. She finds a cleaning job at a train station, which will become a path that changes everything for her. In her haste to leave this town, which has suddenly become unsafe for her, she runs away into the darkness one night. As she continues to trudge on through!! As she continues to trudge on through the snow, the cold has reached through her skins to her bones, and the snow continues to fall.
She needs to find a place to hide, to rest, but there is none to be found. Found by one of the performers of a traveling circus, Noa and child have been safely carried back to the base location of the circus, but staying safely with the circus can only be an option if Noa performs as an aerialist, an option to which Astrid is opposed since she will have to train her. Astrid grew up in the circus, was flying on the trapeze as long as she can remember.
She knows that to train this girl will require more time than they have, and she immediately resents Noa. There are elements of both in this, with Jenoff weaving an emotional, memorable tale of these lives. Even when we fall in love, join lives together or marry, we are creating our own families, extensions of the ones we were raised in.
Heartbreaking, yet sweetly memorable. View all 38 comments. I found the circus theme to be quite enlightening, fascinating, and interesting as I haven't read too many books about traveling circuses during this time period. This is a tale about friendship, family, survival, bravery, secrets, and the sacrifices that these two characters faced during their time performing at the circus.
Through their stories we see their friendship strengthen which ultimately bonds these two women together. Would recommend!! Thank you so much to NetGalley, Pam Jenoff, and Harlequin for the opportunity to read an advance copy of this book for a fair and honest review.
View all 48 comments. Feb 24, RoseMary Achey rated it did not like it. It was filled with unnecessary melodrama, incredibly simplistic dialogue and scenarios that were simply not believable.
Do we really need extra drama? Don't believe the hype, this novel is not on par with Water for Elephants or The Nightingale. Not even in the same league. View all 27 comments. Jeanne Actually, I almost stopped reading this one. Life is too short and there are so many great books to read. I was glad to see so many other intelligent Actually, I almost stopped reading this one.
I was glad to see so many other intelligent readers expressing the same disappointment I felt. Lee Completely agree! Also felt that the character relationships and interactions were not realistic or believable. Oct 22, PM. The plot sounds addictive, and it even involved a circus - hard to go wrong with that.
As morbid as the subject is, I enjoy reading historical stories focusing on World War II and the horrible time in human history we must never forget and keep hopefully learning from. Told through two main points of view, the ambitious story focuses on one woman who lost a child and reclaimed a new one when she runs into a new future, and another woman who is living in the present, hiding from her past, and refusing to think about the future.
The biggest obstacle for me was the writing style. I have little chemistry with it. While I'm one of those readers who actually prefers introspective first person point of view, I'm not a fan when it's a dual first person point of view because it makes little sense to me.
Girls with gifts in specific fields can join together in small groups for geographical studies. Boys are trained to be political soldiers, girls to be strong and brave women who will be the comrades of these political soldiers, and who will later, as wives and mothers, live out and form our National Socialist worldview in their families. Other, more formal, photo-opportunities show him surrounded by uniformed young girls and boys, laughing as they look up adoringly at him. She was convinced that something terrible was happening to us. The Gau Leader herself had picked me from amongst hundreds of girls. Within 48 hours the Polish Air Force was destroyed, most of its first-line planes having been blown up by German bombing on their home airfields before they could take off.
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She remembers the importance of singing songs at meetings. This included the following: "Onward, onward, fanfares are joyfully blaring. Onward, onward, youth must be fearless and daring. Germany, your light shines true, even if we die for you.
According to Richard Grunberger the ideal "German League of Girls type exemplified early nineteenth-century notions of what constituted the essence of maidenhood. Girls who infringed the code by perming their hair instead of wearing plaits or the 'Grechen' wreath of braids had it ceremoniously shaved off as punishment. As a negative counter-image Nazi propaganda projected the combative, man-hating suffragettes of other countries.
The German League of Girls was not a popular organization until the election of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor and in only had 9, members. I felt great joy then. It was portrayed at school as a turning point in the fate of the Fatherland. There was a chance that German self-confidence could grow again. The words 'Fatherland' and 'German people' were big, meaningful words which you used carefully - something big and grand.
Before, the national spirit was depressed, and it was renewed, rejuvenated, and people responded very positively. Melita Maschmann joined the German League of Girls on 1st March in secret because she knew her parents would disapprove. Like the other girls she was ordered to read Mein Kampf but she never finished the book.
She argued that the BDM gave her a sense of purpose and belonging. Maschmann admitted that "she devoted herself to it night and day, to the neglect of her schooling and the distress of her parents".
We were all given the entry forms in class to fill in there and then, and told to take it home for our parents' signature We had to attend classes after school and learn about Adolf Hitler and his achievements. We did community work, singing to soldiers in hospitals and making little presents for them like bookmarks, or poems written out neatly. We also went on hikes and collected leaves and herbs for the war effort.
Hedwig Ertl enjoyed the activities organized by BDM. You went on trips together without paying for it, and you were given exactly the same amount of pocket money as those who had lots of money and now you could go riding and skating and so on, when before you couldn't afford it. You could go to the cinema for 30 pfennings. We could never go to the cinema before, and suddenly things that had been impossible were there for us.
That was incredible, those beautiful Nazi movies. I acquired membership, and forthwith attended meetings, joined ball games and competitions, and took part in weekend hikes; and I thought that whether we were sitting in a circle around a camp fire or just rambling through the countryside and singing old German folk songs. Hildegard Koch was encouraged to join the BDM at the age of He told Hildegard's father: "Your Hilde is a real Hitler girl, blonde and strong - just the type we need Don't let her come under the degenerate influence of the Jews, make her join the BDM.
The duties demanded of the BDM included regular attendance at club premises and camps run by the Nazi Party. One time the hairbrush of a squad leader was publicly displayed because it was full of long hairs. I thought this might be exciting, but it wasn't like I imagined, even though it was right in the country in some lovely woodland. I was shouted at within minutes of arriving, for not picking up a bit of eggshell I'd dropped. We had to get up early each morning, standing to attention in the freezing cold and singing whilst the flag was being hoisted.
Then someone stole my purse. My holiday was mainly doing what other people told you to all the time, like standing to attention and raising our arms for the Sieg Heil.
Renate Finckh was only 10 years-old when she joined the BDM. Both her parents were active members of the Nazi Party. I was filled with pride and joy that someone needed me for a higher purpose. Great pressure was put on young girls to join the BDM and by it had a membership of over 2 million. You were supposed to report and join up In our area we had a lot of workers, left-wing oriented workers, there were many students in my class who said that they preferred sports and that they would never join up.
In the end, almost half the class refused to join. So my class succeeded in this. But that hardly was possible for the classes after us, as they were put under a lot of pressure to join.
In a speech soon after taking control of the organisation she argued: "We need a generation of girls which is healthy in body and mind, sure and decisive, proudly and confidently going forward, one which assumes its place in everyday life with poise and discernment, one free of sentimental and rapturous emotions, and which, for precisely this reason, in sharply defined femininity, would be the comrade of a man, because she does not regard him as some sort of idol but rather as a companion!
Such girls will then, by necessity, carry the values of National Socialism into the next generation as the mental bulwark of our people. All girls in the BDM were told to dedicate themselves to comradeship, service and physical fitness for motherhood.
In parades they wore navy blue skirts, white blouses, brown jackets and twin pigtails. Its leader, Baldur von Schirach , argued "that the Hitler Youth has called up its children to the community of National Socialist youth so that they can give the poorest sons and daughters of our people something like a family for the first time. These arguments upset many parents. They felt that the Nazi Party was taking over control their children.
Hildegard Koch constantly came into conflict with her mother over her membership of the BDM: "After all, we were the new youth; the old people just had to learn to think in the new way and it was our job to make them see the ideals of the new nationalised Germany".
Members of the BDM later recalled that they welcomed the extra power they had over their parents: "As a young person, you were taken seriously. You did things which were important Your dependence on your parents was reduced, because all the time it was your work for the Hitler Youth that came first, and your parents came second All the time you were kept busy and interested, and you really believed you had to change the world. Susanne von der Borch was another girl whose mother did not want her to join the BDM.
She was convinced that something terrible was happening to us. As a child, I could not judge. I was simply besotted by it. Ingeborg Drewitz joined the BDM in without daring to tell her parents. Well, because of the things that one thinks at age thirteen: I wanted to rebel against my parents at all cost because they disliked everything that everyone else liked. She later recalled that she enjoyed the friendship, outings, and excitement "at working for a great cause".
Other girls like Helga Schmidt wanted to join the BDM but her parents would not let her: "We were at first wild with enthusiasm about the Nazi regime. There was, of course, the Hitler Youth, which my father was against. Therefore, even though the school exerted a bit of pressure on us to join, I was among those who were not in the League of German Girls BDM.
And it was not pleasant for the older child to have to stand on the sidelines, because that is not one's inclination. The trick was that I went to school a private girls' school her mother had attended in the city of Berlin, but lived so to speak in another district, so they never figured it out, because they had no communication with each other.
In my village I always said more or less, I'm in it in Berlin. One could always create certain freedoms, right?
But naturally the thing was, I did not have a uniform. And when there were big marches or school festivals, the teacher always said, Put on a black skirt and a white blouse, so it's not so noticeable.
This odd jacket and the scarf and this leather scarf holder and the shoes, I would have died rather than put it on. Susanne von der Borch claimed that her school work suffered because of her BDM activities: "I only managed to get to the end of the school year with the help of my classmates. I was a very bad pupil. I was only good at sport, biology and sketching, I was very bad at all the rest And the school didn't dare do anything so I had my freedom and didn't go to school if I didn't want to.
The world presented to us was filled only with beautiful people, master race people, full of sport and health. And, well, I was proud about that, and inspired by it. I would call this a grand seduction of youth. The girls in the BDM spent a lot of time marching through the streets. Inge Scholl , who later joined the White Rose resistance group, that the German people were mesmerized by the "mysterious power" of "closed ranks of marching youths with banners waving, eyes fixed straight ahead, keeping time to drumbeat and song".
The sense of fellowship was "overpowering" for they "sensed that there was a role for them in a historic process". Hildegard Koch later pointed out that she always appeared in the front line. I was half a head taller than the tallest of them and had wonderful long blonde hair and bright blue eyes. I had to step out in front of the others and the Gau Leader pointed to me and said: 'That is what a Germanic girl should look like; we need young people like that.
Karma Rauhut was one of those who refused to join the BDM. The headmaster of her school called her to his office and said: "Well, my dear child, I cannot give you your diploma. And I must tell you, you will never amount to anything.
You are not in the BDM, you don't join the Party You might become a worker, but you'll never be anything. It revolves. Ruth Mendel from Frankfurt remembers seeing a lot of posters in Nazi Germany advertising the BDM and the Hitler Youth : "They had these cute little girls with these blond pigtails and a couple of freckles on their noses and that was the ideal German girl.
And they had these cute boys for the Hitler Youth. They were plastered all over. The girls in the BDM were required to pass certain physical tests. They had to run 60 metres in twelve seconds, to jump more than 2. Other physical requirements included somersaulting and tightrope walking.
Susanne von der Borch was considered to be the "ideal German girl" as she was "tall, blonde-haired, blue-eyed and mad about sport". She pointed out: "This was my world. It fitted my personality because I had always been very sporty and I liked being with my friends I always wanted to get out of the house. So this was the best excuse for me. I couldn't be at home, because there was always something happening I was never at home. Members of the BDM spent a lot of time fund-raising.
This upset some people: "What I considered negative was the street collections, which were held for one reason or another nearly every week. Collections were held for this and that - and in a rather pushy way.
And house wardens were assigned to go around from house to house with lists for collections The notion was that, whoever doesn't donate is the enemy. Adolf Hitler had strong views on how young women should behave. Her empty-headedness did not disturb him; on the contrary, he detested women with views on their own. Hitler also disliked women who smoked and wore make-up. He made it clear about how young women in Nazi Germany should behave. The American journalist, Wallace R.
The German League of Girls played an important role in developing these values: "They were trained in Spartan severity, taught to do without cosmetics, to dress in the simplest manner, to display no individual vanity, to sleep on hard beds, and to forgo all culinary delicacies; the ideal image of those broad-hipped figures, unencumbered by corsets, was one of radiant blondeness, crowned by hair arranged in a bun or braided into a coronet of plaits.
There was also a campaign against young women who smoked. Medical experts wrote articles claiming there was a positive correlation between excessive nicotine indulgence and infertility. One report argued that smoking harmed the ovaries and that a marriage between heavy smokers only produced 0. If caught smoking, members of the German League of Girls were in danger of being expelled.
She must not wear make-up and she should not smoke. She must be industrious and honest and she must want to have lots of children and be motherly. There was also a campaign in German newspapers against the idea of wearing trousers. Women were described as those "trouser-wenches with Indian warpaint". Magda Goebbels liked wearing trousers and she gained the support of her husband, Joseph Goebbels , to defend like-minded women: "Whether women wear slacks is no concern of the public.
During the colder season women can safely wear trousers, even if the Party mutinies against this in one place or another. The bigotry bug should be wiped out. Adolf Hitler argued that the BDM should play its role in persuading women to have more children.
Our women's organizations must perform the necessary job of enlightenment They must get a regular motherhood cult going and in it there must be no difference between women who are married On special petition men should be able to enter a binding marital relationship not only with one woman, but also with another, who would then get his name without complications.
The Nazi government encouraged the mixing of the sexes. The Ulm district of the Hitler Youth pointed out the organization of mixed social evenings with dancing "had a more beneficial effect on the relationship between boys and girls than any number of exhortations and lectures".
Apparently, the authorities failed to establish paternity in of these cases. The daughter of the American ambassador in Germany, Martha Dodd , argued: "Young girls from the age of ten onward were taken into organizations where they were taught only two things: to take care of their bodies so they could bear as many children as the state needed and to be loyal to National Socialism. Though the Nazis have been forced to recognize, through the lack of men, that not all women can get married.
Hildegard Koch could not understand why her mother was so upset by these stories of young girls getting pregnant. When I told her about the camp with the Hitler Youth she was shocked.
Well, suppose a young German youth and a German girl did come together and the girl gave a child to the Fatherland - what was so very wrong in that? When I tried to explain that to her she wanted to stop me going on in the BDM - as if it was her business! Duty to the Fatherland was more important to me and, of course, I took no notice. Isle McKee wrote about her experiences in the German League of Girls in her autobiography, Tomorrow the World : "We were told from a very early age to prepare for motherhood, as the mother in the eyes of our beloved leader and the National Socialist Government was the most important person in the nation.
We were Germany's hope in the future, and it was our duty to breed and rear the new generation of sons and daughter. These lessons soon bore fruit in the shape of quite a few illegitimate small sons and daughters for the Reich, brought forth by teenage members of the League of German Maidens. The girls felt they had done their duty and seemed remarkably unconcerned about the scandal. Members of the BDM went to camp and hostels for long periods of time. They also worked on farms together.
William L. Shirer , an American journalist, visited these camps. Moral problems soon arose. Actually, the more sincere Nazis did not consider them moral problems at all. Melita Maschmann claimed that she disapproved of the anti-semitism of the Nazi Party but was willing to end contact with her Jewish school friend.
She later argued that she did this out of duty "because one could only do one or two things: either have Jewish friends or be a National Socialist. Hedwig Ertl became convinced that the Germans were the master race.
The BDM and the school she attended was an important factor in this: "We had a history teacher who was a very committed National Socialist, and we had four Jewish pupils.
And they had to stand up during the class, they weren't allowed to sit down. And one after the other they disappeared, until none were left, but nobody thought much about it. We were told they had moved We were told all the time that first the Jews are a lower kind of human being, and then the Poles are inferior, and anyone who wasn't Nordic was worthless. Others like, Hildegard Koch , were clearly anti-semitic: "As time went on more and more girls joined the BDM, which gave us a great advantage at school.
The mistresses were mostly pretty old and stuffy. They wanted us to do scripture and, of course, we refused. Our leaders had told us that no one could be forced to listen to a lot of immoral stories about Jews, and so we made a row and behaved so badly during scripture classes that the teacher was glad in the end to let us out. Of course, this meant another big row with Mother - she was pretty ill at that time and had to stay in bed and she was getting more and more pious and mad about the Bible and all that sort of thing.
I had a terrible time with her But the real row with Mother came when the BDM girls refused to sit on the same bench as the Jewish girls at school. One was saucy and forward and always knew best about everything.
She was ambitious and pushing and had a real Jewish cheek. The other was quiet, cowardly and smarmy and dishonest; she was the other type of Jew, the sly sort. We knew we were right to have nothing to do with either of them. In the end we got what we wanted.
We began by chalking 'Jews out! Later we openly boycotted them. Of course, they blubbered in their cowardly Jewish way and tried to get sympathy for themselves, but we weren't having any. In the end three other girls and I went to the Headmaster and told him that our Leader would report the matter to the Party authorities unless he removed this stain from the school. The next day the two girls stayed away, which made me very proud of what we had done. She claimed that she told members: "Jews are not bad people They are just very different to us in their thinking and their behaviour, and that's why they shouldn't control politics and culture We said that they should marry a German, or a European who was a relative of our race, not a foreigner Only the best German soldier is suitable for you, for it is your responsibility to keep the blood of the nation pure.
Some parents were appalled by their children's anti-semitism. Hedwig Ertl , remembers that at the age of ten being punished by her parents for expressing such views.
As a child, she said to her father, "The Jews are our misfortune". She later recalled: "He looked at me in horror and slapped me in the face. It was the first and only time he hit me. And I didn't understand.
Denunciations of parents by children was encouraged by the BDM and schoolteachers. It has been claimed that many parents "were alarmed by the gradual brutalisation of manners, impoverishment of vocabulary and rejection of traditional values". Michael Burleigh has argued in The Third Reich: A New History : "Their children became strangers, contemptuous of monarchy or religion, and perpetually barking and shouting like pint-sized Prussian sergeant-majors.
In sum, children appeared to have become more brutal, fitter and stupider than they were. In there was a massive drive by Baldur von Schirach to recruit all ten-year-old year olds into the BDM.
After Gertrud Scholtz-Klink married in , she was required to resign her position the BDM required members to be unmarried and without children in order to remain in leadership positions , and was succeeded by Dr.
Girls whose bodies, souls and minds are in harmony, whose physical health and well-balanced natures are incarnations of that beauty which shows that mankind is created by the Almighty We want to train girls who are proud to think that one day they will choose to share their lives with fighting men. Then National Socialism and thus Germany itself will last for ever. Heinrich Himmler complained about the look of the BDM and considered their uniforms too masculine. If we continue to masculinize women in this way, it is only a matter of time before the difference between the genders, the polarity, completely disappears.
But a good body is also not enough on its own. When I sometimes watch women getting off a bus - old puffed-up women - then I think you should be prettier women. Every girl should be pretty. She doesn't have to be a false, cosmetic and made-up beauty.
But we want the beauty of graceful movement. Joseph Goebbels also became concerned about what he called the "masculine vigour" of the BDM. He told one of his department chiefs, Wilfried von Oven : "I certainly don't object to girls taking part in gymnastics or sport within reasonable limits. But why should a future mother go route-marching with a pack on her back? She should be healthy and vigorous, graceful and easy on the eye. Sensible physical exercise can help her to become so, but she shouldn't have knots of muscle on her arms and legs and a step like a grenadier.
Anyway, I won't let them turn our Berlin girls into he-men. At first, Adolf Hitler claimed that all the Nazi children groups were voluntary organizations. However, by , laws were passed that meant that membership of the became obligatory. All other children groups such as the scouts were banned. By was estimated that virtually every young German aged between ten and eighteen was a member of the BDM or the Hitler Youth.
In all young women up to the age of twenty-five had to compete a year of Labour Service before being allowed to take up paid employment. Nine out of ten young women were sent to farms where they lived in barrack-like accommodation under close supervision. It was seen as the female parallel to compulsory military service, aimed at producing a trained labour force in the event of war.
It was also a source of cheap labour as the girls received only pocket money rather than wages. She later recalled that she found the whole experience uplifting: "Our camp community was a model in miniature of what I imagined the National Community Never before or since have I known such a good community, even where the composition was more homogeneous in every respect. Amongst us there were peasant girls, students, factory girls, hairdressers, schoolgirls, office workers and so on The knowledge that this model of a National Community had affected me such intense happiness gave birth to an optimism to which I clung obstinately until Hildegard Koch was sent to a camp in Silesia.
This, of course was quite new to me. I had never done anything like it before, but I tried hard and being tall and strong I was soon quite good at it. We had a pretty uniform which suited me very well. I already knew the importance of cleanliness and neatness from the BDM and our Camp Leader took a liking to me from the beginning. After a couple of months she made me assistant to the Leader in charge of the kitchen and washhouse.
When the Nazis took power women constituted about a fifth of the entire student body. Adolf Hitler was opposed to the idea of women being educated at university and over the next few years numbers dropped dramatically.
However, in the build up to war young men were forced into military service. As a result, the number of young women going to university doubled and by had reached an all-time high of 25, A week later, on 1st September, the two countries invaded Poland. Within 48 hours the Polish Air Force was destroyed, most of its first-line planes having been blown up by German bombing on their home airfields before they could take off.
Most of the ground crews were killed or wounded. In the first week of fighting the Polish Army had been destroyed. On 6th September the Polish government fled from Warsaw. After the government surrendered later that month, Poland was designated as an area for "colonization" by ethnic Germans. On 21st September, , Reinhard Heydrich issued an order authorizing the ghettoization of Jews in Poland. They were expelled from their homes, their land was expropriated and they were deported to the eastern areas of Poland or to ghettos in the cities.
An estimated , Germans, many living in territories in the Soviet sphere of influence, were now offered land in central Poland. Their task was to "Germanize" them, "teaching German culture and customs to the families, many of whom didn't even speak the language.
Susanne von der Borch was asked to a resettlement camp of Bessarabian Germans in central Poland, to teach children art and woodwork. And I don't want to see you ever again.
And I thought, I have to risk that Imagine, I was seventeen years old. I was a blonde girl. My parents were writing me off. They knew the camps were run by the SS and they thought I was going to be drawn into their hands and that would be my fate Formerly they had been rich farmers, breeding sheep, and they were plunged into misery. They didn't have any ration cards, they were living in poverty in these camps.
In Susanne visited the Jewish ghetto in Lodz : "The windows were covered with paint so you couldn't see through. The tram doors were locked and then we drove through the ghetto. People had already scratched little peep holes in the paint. And I scratched a little more to see as much and as clearly as possible what was happening in the ghetto. Jewish children stood there, half-starved, wearing their Jewish stars, at the fence, this barbed wire fence.
They were in a terrible state, dressed only in rags, like all the other people. What I saw - it was dreadful. It was worse than my worst fears I saw one Jewish child, I couldn't see whether it was a boy or a girl, and he was there at the fence and he was looking out with huge eyes, starved eyes, in rags and obviously in despair The ghetto was horrific and when I returned to the camp I was totally shattered.
Hedwig Ertl was recruited to be a teacher at a German school in Poland: "The Poles were told that they had a short time to get out and they could take with them a few possessions They didn't want to be resettled, they were really fed up, because they had very bad quality land and they couldn't get along with I would say they were bitter, but I never experienced anyone who fought it, or threw stones or showed outrage.
In , a group of parents complained to the court that the leaders of the League were openly telling their daughters to have illegitimate children. In , a prohibition came out saying that camping was forbidden to the BDM. Before entering any occupation or advanced studies, the girls, like the boys in Hitler Youth, had to complete a year of land service "Landfrauenjahr". The 'Faith and Beauty' organizations offered groups where girls could receive further education and training in fields that interested them.
Some of the works groups that were available were arts and sculpture, clothing design and sewing, general home economics, and music. The outbreak of war altered the role of the BDM, though not as radically as it did the role of the boys in the HJ, who were to be fed into the German Wehrmacht armed forces when they turned The BDM helped the war effort in many ways. Younger girls collected donations of money, as well as goods such as clothing or old newspapers for the Winter Relief and other Nazi charitable organizations.
Many groups, particularly BDM choirs and musical groups, visited wounded soldiers at hospitals or sent care packages to the front. The older girls volunteered as nurses' aides at hospitals, or to help at train stations where wounded soldiers or refugees needed a hand. After , as Allied air attacks on German cities increased, many BDM girls went into paramilitary and military services Wehrmachtshelferin , where they served as Flak Helpers, signals auxiliaries, searchlight operators, and office staff.
Unlike male HJs, BDM girls took little part in the actual fighting or operation of weaponry, although some Flak Helferinnen operated anti-aircraft guns. Many older girls, with Hitler Youth were sent to Poland as part of the Germanisation efforts. Conversely, the young Polish girls who were selected for "racially valuable traits" and sent to Germany for Germanization were made to join the League as part of the Germanization.
By , the drafting of boys resulted in most of the "land service" help with the harvest being performed by girls. In the last days of the war, some BDM girls, just like some boys of the male Hitler Youth although not nearly as many , joined with the Volkssturm the last-ditch defense in Berlin and other cities in fighting the invading Allied armies, especially the Soviets.
Officially, this was not sanctioned by the BDM's leadership which opposed an armed use of its girls even though some BDM leaders had received training in the use of hand-held weapons about leaders went on a shooting course which was to be used for self-defense purposes. After the war, Dr. Some BDM girls were recruited into the Werwolf groups which were intended to wage guerrilla war in Allied-occupied areas.
The 'Kontrollratsgesetz Nr. Their properties were confiscated. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Racial ideology. Final Solution. Nazism outside of Germany. Related topics. Kedward, Fascism in Western Europe —45 , p. Berg, Transaction Publishers, Rupp , Mobilizing Women for war , p. Munich , p. Lukas, Did the Children Cry? Hitler's War against Jewish and Polish Children, — Hippocrene Books, New York, Categories : Nazi terminology Hitler Youth Women's organisations based in Germany Women's wings of political parties Women in Nazi Germany establishments in Germany disestablishments in Germany Youth organizations established in Organizations disestablished in Youth in Germany.
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The Orphan's Tale by Pam Jenoff
For Isaac and Rosa Blum, who became teenage sweethearts 75 years ago in a ghetto in Nazi-occupied Poland, that moment came as they and thousands of other terrified Jews were being herded to a death camp by Nazi soldiers. Blum recalled. Miraculously, they were both pulled off the line and managed to survive the Holocaust by working as slave laborers in a munitions factory. The following 70 years have been a cinch by comparison, the couple said on Monday in their two-story house in the Manhattan Beach neighborhood of Brooklyn.
He is 94, and she is a year younger. Blum said, even while acknowledging that, yes, it was young, bold love that prodded him to stand up to a Nazi guard and save his sweetheart from being sent to the Treblinka death camp.
A hasty marriage followed, and then a horrific honeymoon of sorts: stealing glances and brief exchanges under the stern watch of armed guards.
By , the Nazis had taken over the Polish city of Czestochowa and established a ghetto of about 45, Jews. It was in this grim setting that the two met, flirted, gathered with friends, played records and danced together. By autumn , the Nazis were rounding up Jews for extermination. Blum was pulled from the line to work in the factory, while his family was pushed onward toward the trains bound for Treblinka.
He would never see his family again. In that chaotic, horrific moment, he spied Rosa, brazenly approached a Nazi officer and tried to save the teenage girl up ahead walking with her family. She said yes. The memories are still vivid and bitter today, but the silver lining is that they still have each other to grow old with, living largely independently and doting on each other.
Blum said, but his thoughtfulness reveals itself in little gifts and almost begrudging acts of tenderness. They are both sharp and physically and socially active, even if they are no longer the strapping youngsters who were selected for labor by the Nazis. With their families sent to their deaths, they were placed in a smaller ghetto of about 5, Jews and, the lie about being siblings never detected, they were issued a marriage license so they could live briefly in a residence for couples before being separated in different barracks at the factory site, which was patrolled by armed guards.
They toiled long hours, she as a welder and he as an electrician, which gave him the chance to approach her workstation to share covert glances. When word filtered out that most Jews were being killed at death camps, they were incredulous, and counted themselves lucky despite their misery. Blum said. As Mrs. Blum fixed lunch for her husband on Monday, she said she still had nightmares about the horrors, which included being strip-searched with a group of women while German soldiers watched and laughed.
And she was in a medical ward after being pushed down some stairs by a Nazi. She shared the ward with a young Jewish woman who tried to hide her pregnancy from the Nazis. After being liberated by the Allies near the end of the war in , the couple stayed in a displaced persons camp and were married a second time, by a city official in Austria with borrowed rings.
Soon after, they managed to buy their own rings with a silver coin they had hidden for months. The two rings wore down over the years, and the Blums never replaced them. They moved to Argentina and were married a third time, in a more proper service. They had two children and then moved in to New York City, where Mr. Blum opened a furrier business, with Mrs.
Blum doing much of the handiwork. Reflecting on why he risked his life by approaching the Nazi soldier that day in , Mr. Then, Mrs. Log In.